What part of a bacteriophage attaches to a host cell?
Attachment: Proteins in the “tail” of the phage bind to a specific receptor (in this case, a sugar transporter) on the surface of the bacterial cell. Entry: The phage injects its double-stranded DNA genome into the cytoplasm of the bacterium.
How does T4 bacteriophage infect a host cell?
Bacteriophages must first bind to the bacteria cell wall in a process called adsorbtion in order to begin the lytic cycle. The phage then penetrates the bacteria cell wall using its sheath and then injects its genetic material into the host via flagella.
How does a bacteriophage attach to its host cell?
To infect bacteria, most bacteriophages employ a ‘tail’ that stabs and pierces the bacterium’s membrane to allow the virus’s genetic material to pass through. … When the virus attaches to the bacterial surface, the sheath contracts and drives the tube through it.
What is required for a bacteriophage T4 virion to attach to an Escherichia coli cell?
Adsorption, penetration and injection of bacteriophage T4 DNA into an E. coli cell. T4 attaches to an outer membrane porin protein, ompC. … This refers to the transcription and translation of a section of the phage DNA to make a set of proteins that are needed to replicate the phage DNA.
How do phages bind to bacteria?
Generally, the infection process begins with the phage attaching to the surface of the host cell via particular host cell surface receptors. As a consequence of infection, the genetic material of the phage is injected into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell.
Which of these structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to the host cell wall?
The external structure of bacteriophages is made up of proteins and is known as a capsid or phage coat.
What part of the bacteriophage gets injected into a bacterial cell?
Which part of the bacteriophage was injected into the bacterial cell? The bacteriophage injects its double-stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) genome into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. Notably, the tail contains a hollow core through which the injection of DNA takes place into the host cell.
How does bacteriophage T4 protect its DNA from the host cell’s restriction enzyme?
Phage T4 protects its DNA from the two gene encoded gmrS/gmrD (glucose modified hydroxymethylcytosine (gHMC) restriction endonuclease) (CT), of pathogenic E. coli CT596, by injecting several hundred copies of the 76 amino acid residue nuclease inhibitor, IPI*, into the infected host.
Where does T4 bacteriophage attach to Gram negative bacteria?
Bacteriophage receptors on the surface of the bacteria
In Gram-negative bacteria, LPS is a common receptor for phages. In addition, other receptors are outer membrane proteins, pili and flagella (Sørensen et al. 2011).
What do phages bind to?
Phages recognize their host bacteria by binding to specific surface receptors that may be outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides or components of bacterial capsules, pili and flagella8,9,10.
How can phage target their bacterial hosts?
Bacteriophages are viruses with the ability specifically to infect and replicate inside target bacteria by injecting their acid nucleic content that incorporates into the bacterial genome or remains a stable episome replicating with their host.
Which structure of a virion protects it from degradation when outside the host?
The essential functions of the capsid are to protect the functional integrity of the viral RNA when the virion is outside the host cell and to initiate the infectious process when a receptor on a suitable host cell is encountered.
Which of the following acts as receptor for T4 bacteriophage on the surface of ecoli?
Early genetic studies implicated the Escherichia coli cell surface molecules LPS and OmpC as the host receptors for phage T4.